Cuba's Cooperatives "Without Papers"
May 20, 2014 | Print | 0 4 0 30
By José Jasán Nieves Cárdenas (Progreso Semanal)
HAVANA TIMES — While hundreds of new non-agricultural cooperatives
struggle to get started or sustain themselves, a growing group of
private workers are partnering on a voluntary basis and operating as
de-facto cooperatives 'without papers.'
To them, bridled stallions, the 'birth certificate' that makes them
cooperatives is not just another bit of red tape but also the only way
to organize the business model properly.
Proposals to create cooperative enterprises in sectors such as
construction, fishing, advertising and computer services have been
approved by the provincial governments but are awaiting a final decision
from the Council of Ministers.
"We function de facto like a cooperative, because the decisions are made
and debated among ourselves, but, until we receive an authorization, we
are self-employed entrepreneurs," explains Enrique Steven Lagar, future
president of INCO, a construction initiative that has been after a
permit since early 2013.
"After we studied the legislation, we submitted our project," says
Ernesto Flores Castillo, would-be manager of TISOFT, a group of
communications and electronics engineers. The firm applied for a permit
in June 2013; after one year without a response, it received an advisory
that "the rules are still being studied" to enact that modality in the
second half of 2014.
The Cuban government responds to requests for speedy approval by
reminding applicants that this is an "experimental" process. According
to President Raúl Castro, "we have to analyze, not act as if what was
designed is impeccable [...] We cannot hurry in the constant approval of
these cooperatives. We shall go at a suitable pace."
But while the pace remains cautious, the state's coffers fail to receive
more revenue, in the form of taxes these associations — currently
self-limited in their production — could pay.
"In 2013, we paid 250,000 pesos in taxes (more than $12,000 USD) and had
projected paying 1 million pesos in 2014 if we had been a cooperative,"
"If we secured contracts for 1 million pesos in a year, which is very
possible, we could pay 345,000 pesos (about $17,000 USD) in taxes," says
Steven. While Steven can show a list of the projects he has completed,
he bewails the larger number of projects he has failed to do because his
cooperative hasn't been approved.
The calculations are based on a study of the differences between the tax
rates for private workers and cooperatives, which motivate the former to
stop at a specific income plateau. Earning more money means paying
higher taxes — a risky proposition for self-employed workers.
According to the tax laws, independent workers can claim 30-to-50
percent of their annual income as expenditures in order to calculate a
"taxable base" that takes half of the earnings above 50,000 pesos
reported. On the other hand, cooperatives can deduct 100 percent of
their expenditures and pay 5 percent less in taxes on "revenues"
(profit) throughout the graduated scale.
Competition or complement?
In the living room of a private home in the city of Cienfuegos,
negotiations are made for the printing of labels on pullovers, cars and
signs by REDIS, a "cooperative in the making." A similar firm, already
authorized by the government, operates in Varadero.
"With the legal status afforded by this category [as a cooperative], I
can reach more clients, even those who today won't even allow me into
their offices because 'they have nothing to say' to independent
entrepreneurs," says Raydel Argudín, the organizer of REDIS.
That legal backing is one of the principal goals of these entrepreneurs,
because in their present state they encounter constant resistance from
functionaries who interpret the laws at their own discretion.
"Now it turns out that, in order to repair computer equipment, the
Agriculture companies, for example, must have a document certifying the
inability of a state-run supplier to do that job. COPEXTEL (the
government's monopoly on computer service) won't issue that document
even if reality shows that it cannot take on many repair jobs," says the
"That's not legislated anywhere," he adds with conviction. And he is right.
"To obtain the merchandise, we have to become magicians because much of
the raw materials are sold to us by the state-run company that offers
the same services that we do and, because we are its competitors in some
provinces, they deny us the opportunity to buy," complains Argudín.
For that reason, Flores Castillo, the computer specialist, prefers to
avoid comparisons or references to his group as a "competitor to the
state-run businesses," even though — in reality — it is.
"I'd rather say that we are their complement, because we take on the
small jobs that a state-run business doesn't consider profitable or
attractive. Would a company that bills millions of pesos be interested
in repairing three photocopiers of different makes that broke down
several years ago? Of course not! But we are, because little by little
we build up our revenue," Flores explains.
Fears and restraints
After the state took over all private property in 1968, independent
efforts were stymied until permits were issued during the height of the
economic crisis of the 1990s, given out as a "lesser evil." With the
reforms being carried out by Raul Castro, this perspective changed
despite there still being ghosts of the past.
The experience of a young computer engineer working in a Transport
Ministry company shows how deeply rooted resistance can be.
"In the office, we have a multifunctional printer that needs only the
replacement of an internal device that was fried by a voltage surge. We
also have two laser printers that are inoperative because there are no
ink cartridges available to replace the empty ones. I found an
independent worker who could solve both problems, but my company manager
flat out refused to call him," she says.
"No, no. Computer repairs? That's a major pain … let's leave it as is,"
her boss told her. "What do you need? Printers? We'll make out a
purchase order and that'll settle it."
"It's worrisome that it is easier to buy new equipment than to pay a lot
less for a repair job," the woman says.
The woman's husband, also a computer specialist, had a different experience.
When computers essential for production broke down at the Cienfuegos
branch of the Cuban Bread Company, its director didn't wait for
"guidance from Havana" because none was available. He went through the
tortuous task of applying for authorization, asked for a special permit
for that one occasion, and was allowed to hire a private contractor to
repair the computer's motherboard.
"In the end, we fretted over nothing, because the private repairman
solved what no state-run company in the region could solve. And with a
lot more efficiency, quality, and even a warranty!" the young engineer said.
That excess of precaution, frequently seen in business, goes against the
policy declared publicly by the vice president of the Council of
Ministers, Marino Murillo, who is in charge of leading the country's
"What's always questionable — no matter who gets paid — is the
irrationality of the disbursement, not the use by persons with non-state
formulas," Murillo told the Cuban parliament.
The difficulty for these and other groups in gaining legal recognition
as cooperatives could be the resistance and fear to grant self-employed
labor greater importance in the economy as a whole.
The new balances and possible linkups between the various forms of
management and ownership are, among others, major challenges facing the
economic reforms in Cuba. But pronouncements are one thing, reality is
another. The authorities don't seem in a hurry to loosen some of their
Source: Cuba's Cooperatives "Without Papers" - Havana Times.org -