Cuban Doctors Flee Venezuela With The Help Of U.S. Parole Program
By Brianna Lee@firstname.lastname@example.org on November 17 2014 3:40 PM
Cuban neonatologists watch over premature babies in the natal intensive
care unit of a public maternity hospital in Guatire on the outskirts of
Caracas, Venezuela. Reuters/Jorge Silva
Venezuela's brewing economic troubles and high crime rates have been
prompting Venezuelans -- particularly young professionals -- to emigrate
by the thousands in recent months. But Cuban doctors stationed there are
also getting in on the exodus: The number of Cuban medical professionals
defecting from their posts in Venezuela has ballooned in the past year,
and many of them are winding up in the United States.
The U.S. has been a prime destination of Cuban defectors in the health
care sector, with the help of the little-known Cuban Medical
Professional Parole Program, launched by executive order under President
George W. Bush in 2006. According to the U.S. Citizenship and
Immigration Services agency, the number of medical workers from Cuba who
have come to the U.S. under that program quadrupled in the last four
years, aided heavily in the last year by defectors from Venezuela.
Since September 2013, some 700 Cuban medical professionals have
abandoned their stations in Venezuela, up from 300 the previous year,
according to Solidarity Without Borders (SSF), a nonprofit organization
based in Florida that helps Cuban health care workers transition their
careers in the United States. The U.S. granted 1,289 visas to Cuban
medical professionals in fiscal year 2014, a record, with 1,438 visas
granted to defectors from Venezuela in the past four years.
"Worsening conditions in Venezuela push defection up," SSF president Dr.
Julio Cesar Alfonso told Venezuelan newspaper El Universal. "Insecurity,
low wages, labor exploitation and control over private life continue to
be the main causes." In Venezuela, it's common for defectors to escape
first through Colombia with the help of smugglers before applying to the
U.S. parole program for a visa.
Many Cuban medical professionals opt to participate in the country's
infamous international medical programs for higher wages offered in
other countries; in Brazil, for instance, doctors are reportedly paid
$1,125 a month, while in Cuba, the government recently raised doctors'
salaries to around $67. But some doctors have also reported being
coerced by Cuban authorities to work in Venezuela's poorest and most
insecure neighborhoods without adequate protection or enough money to
eke out a decent living. Alfonso told El Universal Cuban medical workers
in Venezuela often only receive around $100 while the Cuban government
reaps most of the financial rewards from the deal. "They cannot refuse
to work, they are poorly paid and no one says a word," he said.
One defector named Manuel who spoke with the Los Angeles Times in
September said he was only paid $20 a month in Venezuela, an amount that
"was not enough to pay even for food and transportation, much less a
telephone call to Cuba now and then."
U.S. congressional hardliners on U.S. Cuba policy, including Rep. Mario
Diaz-Balart, R-Fla., have decried the program as forced labor. "Cuban
doctors are hastily trained, poorly equipped and forced to work in
dangerous conditions while most of their pay is siphoned to the Castro
dictatorship," Diaz-Balart said last month.
But in many other cases, such as with Cuba's medical missions in West
Africa to combat Ebola, observers say that Cuban medical personnel are
there on their own accord. The U.S. State Department also stated in its
2014 human trafficking report that "reports of coercion by Cuban
authorities in this program do not appear to reflect a uniform
government policy of coercion; however, information is lacking."
Cuba does not have official figures on how many doctors it has sent on
international medical missions, which have been in place since the early
1960s. But the programs have been a hallmark of Havana's foreign policy
under the Castros. The so-called oil-for-doctors agreement between Cuba
and Venezuela forms the foundation of their close relationship and is
generally a win-win for the governments involved: Cuba is able to raise
its humanitarian profile internationally while also receiving an
estimated $3.2 billion per year in discounted Venezuelan oil, and
Caracas gets trained medical professionals to boost the government's
Cuba has also sent thousands of medical professionals to Brazil under
the "Mais Medicos" (More Doctors) program launched last year, a move
that provoked the ire of health care unions in Brazil. Earlier this
year, two doctors defected from the Brazil program and moved to the
U.S., saying their salaries were only a fraction of what other foreign
doctors in Brazil made and accusing the Cuban government of pocketing
most of the pay.
Source: Cuban Doctors Flee Venezuela With The Help Of U.S. Parole